Nematode Control

What Are Nematodes?

Nematodes are detrimental turf pests found in sandy, native soils (Southeastern U.S.) or in sand-based golf course putting greens and tees across the United States. Plant parasitic nematodes are small, microscopic, unsegmented worms that utilize a stylet, a protruding needle-like mouthpart, to puncture the plant cell, inject digestive juices and ingest plant fluids. Nematodes feed on turfgrass roots and are most abundant when the turf is actively growing – in the spring and fall for cool-season grasses, and in the summer months for warm-season grasses.

Nematodes feed as either ectoparasites or endoparasites. Ectoparasitic nematodes spend their entire life cycle outside the turf roots, feeding and reproducing in the soil surrounding the root system. Endoparasitic nematodes actually enter the turf root to feed and reproduce. In addition to direct feeding, nematodes can aid fungal infection and development, resulting in greater turf damage.
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How to Spot Nematodes

There are six stages in the nematode life cycle, including an egg stage and the adult. There are four juvenile stages that allow the nematode to increase in size and, in some species, to change shape. These juvenile stages are similar to the larval stages found in insects. Nematodes are aquatic animals and, therefore, require water to survive. Nematodes live and move in the water film that surrounds soil particles. Soil type, particularly sand content, has a major impact on the ability of parasitic nematodes to move, infect roots and reproduce. For most nematodes that are a problem in turf, well-drained sandy soils with soil moisture at or near field capacity are optimum for nematodes to flourish.

In turf, there are very few indications of a nematode problem. Generally, the symptoms of nematode damage are similar to those of other pest problems, nutritional deficiencies or environmental stresses. Above-ground nematode symptoms include the yellowing of turf initially, followed by wilting and slow recovery from wilt, poor turf response to fertilization and eventual thinning in irregular shapes, followed by weed invasion. These symptoms generally occur over a period of months and years. Below-ground nematode symptoms include short stubby roots, with few branch roots compared to healthy roots. Roots may have a dark brown color, and sometimes exhibit swollen root tips.
Nematode Damage in a Fairway

Cultural Management

With chemical control options for nematodes being limited, cultural management strategies are vital in the prevention of severe nematode damage. Healthy turf can tolerate some nematode infection with little to no noticeable damage. Implement cultural practices that promote root growth and health, including raising the height of cut, using lightweight mowing and rolling equipment to minimize compaction, applying balanced fertility, aerifying, proper irrigation and using fungicides to manage turf diseases. If nematode populations are high and the turf root system is severely damaged, apply foliar nitrogen, which is more readily available to the plant.
Learn More About Nematodes in the Nematode Zone

Indemnify® – The Next-Generation Nematicide

Indemnify is an innovative nematicide that offers control of key nematodes on warm- and cool-season grasses. It improves root growth and overall turfgrass health, translating to better playability with improved wear tolerance.

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Indemnify at a Glance

Nematodes Before and After Indemnify
Active Ingredient: Fluopyram
Mode of Action: Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI)
Chemical Class: Pyridinyl ethyl benzamide
Formulation: Suspension concentrate
Signal Word: Caution
Use: Preventive or curative nematicide
Application: Can be applied on all turfgrass species

How Indemnify Works
Fluopyram, the active ingredient in Indemnify, blocks nematodes’ cellular respiration and limits their ability to produce energy. The energy-drained nematodes straighten out and become paralyzed. They stop feeding on roots and eventually die.

Best Uses
  • Indemnify effectively controls key root-feeding nematodes of turfgrass, including but not limited to, sting, root-knot, ring and has activity on the foliar-feeding nematode Anguina pacificae
  • Use as a preventive or curative nematicide
  • Application is simple and is without course closure or extensive cultural practices, just spray and water into root zone

  • Controls root-feeding nematodes such as sting, stunt, root-knot and the foliar-feeding Anguina pacificae, a problem of Poa annua greens in California
  • Simple application without course closure – just spray and water into root zone within 24 hours
  • Delivers long-lasting residual in the root zone
  • Positively impacts root health and length, helping to improve turfgrass quality and density
  • Flexible timing integrates well with turf maintenance programs throughout the year
  • Can be applied on all turfgrass species

Ease of Use
  • Application as a foliar spray
  • Flexible timing integrates well into current Best Management Practice (BMP) programs
  • Long duration of control means fewer applications are required
  • Can apply on all turfgrass species which includes, bermudagrass, bentgrass and annual bluegrass
  • Good environmental profile with CAUTION signal word
  • Personal Protection Equipment – long sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes plus socks, chemical-resistant gloves (such as nitrile or butyl)

How to Use
  • Apply Indemnify prior to and during active root growth to maximize turf recovery without the root-feeding damage caused by plant parasitic nematodes
  • Control key nematodes in the fall in southern regions prior to peak golf play in the winter months
  • Control key nematodes in the spring in other regions like the transition zone prior to peak golf play in the summer
  • Use curatively at first sign of turfgrass stress due to nematodes

Indemnify Q&A

What are the key features of Indemnify?
  • Provides preventive and curative control of key plant parasitic nematodes that feed on turfgrass roots
  • Advanced formulation technology provides optimized distribution of the nematicide in the root zone
  • The signal word on the label is CAUTION and one immediate benefit is that course closure is not required when using Indemnify

What does Indemnify look like?
  • Indemnify is a liquid, soluble concentrate formulation that provides easy application as a foliar spray
  • The concentrated product is blue to enhance precise measurement by applicators; sprays clear and is non-staining

What nematodes does Indemnify control?
  • Controls important root-feeding nematodes such as sting and root knot, and has activity on many other plant parasitic nematodes
  • Controls the foliar-feeding nematode Anguina pacificae, a problem of Poa annua greens in California

Where can Indemnify be applied?
  • On golf courses, applications can be made on all areas of play (greens, tees and fairways)
  • In addition to golf courses, applications can be made to sod farms, sport fields, residential, institutional, municipal, commercial and other turfgrass areas

What is the active ingredient?
  • Fluopyram is the active ingredient that represents a new mode of action for broad-spectrum control of nematodes
  • The chemical class is pyridinyl ethyl benzamide
  • Fluopyram is classified as a systemic which has acropetal movement, moving up and outward to untreated parts of the turfgrass plant with the flow of water

What is the mode of action?
  • Fluopyram blocks cellular respiration resulting in the death of the nematode
  • Typical response of nematodes to treatment is paralysis without the ability to recover

What are the key benefits of Indemnify?
  • Preventively, use in the fall to control nematodes and optimize root health prior to dormancy or to ensure healthy roots during semi-dormancy
  • Preventively, use in the spring to control nematodes and ensure normal green up/transition of turfgrass
  • Curatively, use any time of the year when nematode populations cause visual symptoms

How quickly does Indemnify work?
  • The effect on nematodes is initially paralysis and this begins once the nematicide makes contact
  • In general, visual improvement to damaged turf occurs 4 weeks after application

How long will the effects last?
  • Effects of improved turfgrass quality can last between 2-6 months
  • The exact duration is dependent on several factors including, but not limited to, nematode species and turfgrass type

Can I mix Indemnify with other products I use?
  • Indemnify is physically and biologically compatible with many registered pesticides, fertilizers, and micronutrients, but not all combinations have been tested
  • You must first determine the chemical, physical, biological and plant compatibility of such mixes prior to making applications on a broad scale

How does Indemnify compare to traditional or historical nematicides?
  • Indemnify provides a simple solution for controlling key nematodes without invasive application methods or phytotoxicity concerns
  • Indemnify provides effective control at low use rates with fewer applications (1-4 per year)

Do I need to water in Indemnify applications?
  • Irrigate within 24 hours of application to depth of the root zone to be protected

What personal protective equipment (PPE) is required when using Indemnify?
  • Signal word is CAUTION
  • Long-sleeved shirt, long pants, shoes plus socks, chemical resistant gloves such as Nitrile or butyl material

Bayer CropScience LP, Environmental Science Division. 2 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. 1-800-331-2867. Bayer, the Bayer Cross, Indemnify is a registered trademarks of Bayer. Not all products are registered in all states. ©2017 Bayer CropScience LP.
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